Showing posts with label C#. Show all posts
Showing posts with label C#. Show all posts

Sunday

.Net Core: What Is New In ASP.NET Core 2.0

Introduction

ASP.NET is the next evolution of Microsoft for the web pages that are supposed to be server driven. Rather than modifying and amending the ASP and adding new features and functionalities into it, new software called the ASP.NET has come up. It is completely and overhauls as it provides an interface for programming that lets the developers keep coding in an advanced way for the internet. These are the developers who are familiar with the concepts of Visual Basic as well as the other tools that are based on the development of relations between client and server. The most well-known providers of hosting services support the technologies that have a .NET extension; they support both ASP.NET core 2.0 and ASP.NET core 3.5.  The new .net core 2.0 features are also supported by these providers.

Things to know about the latest ASP.NET Core 2.0:

In the latest ASP.NET core 2.0 hosting those developers who have a past record of developing different stuff in the world of client and server are allowed for transferring their skills seamlessly to the web. Those developers and programmers who also have been writing programs in different languages including Java, Visual Basic, C++, etc. for the purpose of development on the internet are allowed for using the already existing components. This lets them keep working with their web pages of ASP.NET core and the web forms as well. In the latest release of ASP.NET, these functionalities have been enhanced to a great level.
What Is New In ASP.NET Core 2.0

New features added in ASP.NET core:

Support for Razor Pages

The support for Razor pages is one of the features that have been recently added to the functionality of ASP.NET core. MVC has the same features as the Razor pages.

New framework capabilities

The APIs, as well as the ability for referencing the complete Framework Libraries, has been expanded in the .NET core 2.0.

New OS addons

There is an expanded support of Operating System.

New Optimisations

Now .NET core is supported by the Visual Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. It allows the users to make console applications and the class libraries.

Csproj is the new game

The project files of xproj are to be replaced by the csproj’s new version.

Legacy Support

The MS builds have started working again in the new version.

New updates for visual studio

There are certain tooling enhancements done by Visual Studio 2017 in the new version of .NET.

Conclusion

You should keep over viewing ASP.NET Core 2.0, and its latest versions so that you do not miss out any of its new functionalities. Recently, the tools for developers and the integration of the database for the latest version of ASP.NET have also been designed in such a way that it becomes very easy to use. By following the easy steps, you can go for .net core 2.0 download and further explore about the software.

Suggested Reading

Saturday

MVC Compression: How to use GZIP Compression in ASP.net MVC

Introduction

GZIP compression can help to our website to reduce its bandwidth usage. In this article, we can incorporate GZIP feature in our MVC app. We can enable GZIP header through our website, alternatively we can also enable GZIP through our website IIS. Here describing, how to use GZIP compression in our ASP.net MVC app.

Already Discussed on ASP.Net MVC Security & Performance

Main benefits of GZIP compression are under below:

  • It helps to reduce sizes of our website pages.
  • It helps to increase speed of web pages.
  • It mounts to cost-benefit ratio high.

Namespace:

We need to add two namespaces before to write code of GZIP compression.

using System.Web.Mvc;
using System.IO.Compression;

Code of GZIP Compress under FilterConfig.cs

Write this code under FilterConfig.cs in App_Start folder of your MVC App.

public class CompressAttribute : ActionFilterAttribute
    {
        public override void OnActionExecuting(ActionExecutingContext filterContext)
        {

            var _encodingsAccepted = filterContext.HttpContext.Request.Headers["Accept-Encoding"];
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(_encodingsAccepted)) return;

            _encodingsAccepted = _encodingsAccepted.ToLowerInvariant();
            var _response = filterContext.HttpContext.Response;

            if (_encodingsAccepted.Contains("deflate"))
            {
                _response.AppendHeader("Content-encoding", "deflate");
                _response.Filter = new DeflateStream(_response.Filter, CompressionMode.Compress);
            }
            else if (_encodingsAccepted.Contains("gzip"))
            {
                _response.AppendHeader("Content-encoding", "gzip");
                _response.Filter = new GZipStream(_response.Filter, CompressionMode.Compress);
            }
        }
    }

Call Compress Attribute in MVC Controller

Now call Compress attribute on your controller action to get done this functionality in your MVC application.

Working Sample:

Here, I am showing statistics of my web page difference between zipped and unzipped webpage.

Unzip Webpage:

unzipped Webpage

Unzip Webpage

Requests 34
Size124 KB
Finish5.33s
DOContentLoaded617 ms
Load689 ms

Gzip Webpage:

Gzip Webpage
Gzip Webpage

Requests 34
Size123 KB
Finish1.36s
DOContentLoaded523 ms
Load582 ms

Finally, you can find difference between unzip and zip web pages. It is very required that your web pages should be Gzip enabled through IIS or visual studio project so that it will increase performance of your web pages in web browser (Chrome, IE, FF, Opera etc.). Here, I have explained how to use GZIP compression in ASP.net MVC app.

[Compress]
public ActionResult Index()
{
    /// write here your logic to pull data from database
    return View();
}

Conclusion

GZIP compression helps to our site pages and other resource files before sending them over to the program. This radically decreases exchange time since the documents are considerably littler. Here, I have explained how to use GZIP compression in asp.net MVC.

Monday

MVC Custom Error: How to implement custom error pages using MVC

Introduction

Custom Error pages can make your MVC application more elegant and informative. I often see many developers more struggles for hours to implement this functionality in ASP.Net MVC application. I’ll throw full light on all aspects how to implement MVC custom error pages. I have here demonstrated very common errors of MVC application as listed below:
  • Not Found: Whenever page is not founmd (MVC 404 Page).
  • Access Denied: Whenever we are trying to access folder (CAS Code Access Security) permissions or someone like same.
  • Internal Server Error: This error is related to internal server error. 
  • Error Occurred: If any other error occurred in our MVC application.
MVC custom error page
MVC custom error page
You may conquers this example very easily, if once you go through also this example because it is extended from the earlier example. If you are already regular reader of Technology Crowds then it is OK.
You may also track Exception code and refer to custom page error in your ASP.Net MVC application.
Namespace Used:

using System.Web.Routing;

Add below code into Global.asax

You are required to add below code into Global.asax page on Application_Error page in your MVC application to get working custom error page.
protected void Application_Error(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
    var httpContext = ((MvcApplication)sender).Context;
    var currentController = " ";
    var currentAction = " ";
    var currentRouteData = RouteTable.Routes.GetRouteData(new HttpContextWrapper(httpContext));

    if (currentRouteData != null)
    {
    if (currentRouteData.Values["controller"] != null && !String.IsNullOrEmpty(currentRouteData.Values["controller"].ToString()))
        {
            currentController = currentRouteData.Values["controller"].ToString();
        }

        if (currentRouteData.Values["action"] != null && !String.IsNullOrEmpty(currentRouteData.Values["action"].ToString()))
        {
            currentAction = currentRouteData.Values["action"].ToString();
        }
    }

    var ex = Server.GetLastError();
    var controller = new ErrorController();
    var routeData = new RouteData();
    var action = "Index";

    if (ex is HttpException)
    {
        var httpEx = ex as HttpException;

        switch (httpEx.GetHttpCode())
        {
            case 404:
                action = "NotFound";
                break;

            case 401:
                action = "AccessDenied";
                break;

            case 500:
                action = "InternalServerError";
                break;
        }
    }

    httpContext.ClearError();
    httpContext.Response.Clear();
    httpContext.Response.StatusCode = ex is HttpException ? ((HttpException)ex).GetHttpCode() : 500;
    httpContext.Response.TrySkipIisCustomErrors = true;

    routeData.Values["controller"] = "Error";
    routeData.Values["action"] = action;

    controller.ViewData.Model = new HandleErrorInfo(ex, currentController, currentAction);
    ((IController)controller).Execute(new RequestContext(new HttpContextWrapper(httpContext), routeData));
}

Error Controller Actions

Here are written controller actions list like Index, NotFound, AccessDenied, InternalServerError etc.
public class ErrorController : Controller
{
    ///     /// Track Common Page Error
    ///     /// 
    [HttpGet]
    public ActionResult Index()
    {
        TempData["error"] = "Error Occurred!";
    return View();
    }
    ///     /// Track Page Not Found Error
    /// 
    /// 
    [HttpGet]
    public ActionResult NotFound()
    {
        TempData["error"] = "Page not Found";
        return View();
    }
    /// 
    /// Track Access Denied
    ///     /// 
    [HttpGet]
    public ActionResult AccessDenied()
    {
        TempData["error"] = "Access Denied";
        return View("Index");
    }

    ///     /// Track Internal Server Error
    ///     /// 
    [HttpGet]
    public ActionResult InternalServerError()
    {
        TempData["error"] = "Internal Server Error";
        return View("Index");
    }
}

Custom Error Razor Views

Below is completely provided code snippet of Razor view engine to display custom error pages to end user. Razor views will remain same to all custom error pages like IndexNotFoundAccessDeniedInternalServerError etc.

@{
    ViewBag.Title = @TempData["error"];
    Layout = null;
}

Error:

@TempData["error"]

Error Description:

@Model.Exception.Message.ToString() @Html.Raw(" ") @Model.ControllerName @Html.Raw(" ") @Model.ActionName

MVC custom error pages

Conclusion

To standardise your ASP.net MVC application, we are all required to customise error pages and show on a particular page with detailed error to make more trustworthy your website in to your online audience. Here, I have lined up all aspects of how to implement custom error pages using MVC application with attached working sample project to setup on your machine to see how it happen in really.

Download Complete Project (visual studio source files)
Download

Thursday

URL Access: How to Prevent Direct URL Access In MVC

Introduction

Here is writing another article to make more secure of your MVC application. I’ll explore all aspects here, how to prevent direct URL access in MVC application. Before to go through this article, you are required to detail about these articles as given below.
  1. Asp.net mvc session management example
  2. Prevent Cross-Site Request Forgery using AntiForgeryToken() in MVC

Namespace Used

To apply this feature into your MVC application is used System.Web.Routing namespace to prevent direct URL access in MVC.
How to Prevent Direct URL Access In MVC

using System.Web.Routing

Apply this feature in FilterConfig.cs file

We have to call this feature under OnActionExecuting of Action filter. We have to apply filter as below written lines to prevent direct URL access in MVC. If we are tempering URL in browser then it will forcibly throw you to Logout action of Home Controller lying under Main area.

[AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class | AttributeTargets.Method)]
public class NoDirectAccessAttribute : ActionFilterAttribute
{
    public override void OnActionExecuting(ActionExecutingContext filterContext)
    {
        if (filterContext.HttpContext.Request.UrlReferrer == null ||
 filterContext.HttpContext.Request.Url.Host != filterContext.HttpContext.Request.UrlReferrer.Host)
        {
     filterContext.Result = new RedirectToRouteResult(new
                               RouteValueDictionary(new { controller = "Home", action = "Logout", area = "Main" }));
        }
    }
}

Prevent Direct Access to Class (Apply on Controller Class)

We can apply NoDirectAccess Attribute to Class and it will follow to all containing methods, if any methods accessed directly under the whole controller. It will throw you specified action (here’s throwing Logout action) like MyWebsiteURL.com/Main/PersonalDetail/Index

[NoDirectAccess]
public class PersonalDetailController : Controller
{
      //
      // GET: /Main/PersonalDetail/
      public ActionResult Index()
      {
          return View();
      }
}

Apply NoDirectAccess Attribute to Action

Alternatively, we can apply NoDirectAccess Attribute to specific Action rather than to whole Controller class. Suppose, we are accessing directly like MyWebsiteURL.com/Main/Home/login

[NoDirectAccess]
public ActionResult Login()
{
   return View();
}

Conclusion

I have here demonstrated all necessary steps to prevent direct URL access in MVC to make our MVC application more secured and robust over internet. These are the healthy features to make our MVC application more reliable across the internet.

Tuesday

MVC Session: Asp.net mvc session management example

Introduction

In this example, showing how to use and validate session (HttpContext.Current.Session) in MVC application. In my earlier article, one of more secured feature to keep up your website healthy cross-site request forgery explained. MVC application has provided us facility to apply filter like
  1.  Authorization 
  2.  Action Filter 
  3.  Result Filter 
  4.  On Error Filter
I am here applying OnActionExecuting filter helps us to manage ASP.net MVC session management whether session is preserving or not, if session is expired, it will not let you access your authorised area and throw away to login area or someone page.
Asp.net mvc session management example

Add below code in FilterConfig.cs under App_Start folder

This code is written under OnActionExecuting in FilterConfig.cs file
public class UserSessionActionFilter : ActionFilterAttribute, IActionFilter
{
    public override void OnActionExecuting(ActionExecutingContext filterContextORG)
    {
        HttpContext ctx = HttpContext.Current;
        if (HttpContext.Current.Session["User"] == null)
        {
            /// this handles session when data is requested through Ajax json
            if (filterContextORG.HttpContext.Request.IsAjaxRequest())
            {
                JsonResult result = new JsonResult { Data = "Session Timeout!" };
                filterContextORG.Result = result;
            }
            else
            {
                /// If session is expired then redirected to logout page which further redirect to login page. 
            filterContextORG.Result = new RedirectResult("~/Main/Home/Logout");
                return;
            }
        }
}

In Global.asax Should register FilterConfig.cs

protected void Application_Start()
{
 AreaRegistration.RegisterAllAreas();
 WebApiConfig.Register(GlobalConfiguration.Configuration);
 FilterConfig.RegisterGlobalFilters(GlobalFilters.Filters);
 RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(RouteTable.Routes);
}

Checking Session is expired or not

We have to call action attribute [UserSessionActionFilter] in MVC controller to check whether session is preserving or not. If session is expired it will throw to other page.
[UserSessionActionFilter]
public ActionResult ContactDetail()
{
 return View();
}

Conclusion

This example is showing how to handle session in ASP.net MVC application. This example helps us to asp.net MVC session management example with all required steps.

Suggested Reading

Thursday

MVC Areas: Organizing an Application using Areas

Introduction

MVC architecture is inherently separated into three separate layers like Model (database), Presentation (UI, View), and Controller (Business layer). Releasing of MVC 2 introduces new feature of Area which provide solid capability to further separate files of file structure. Using with Area, we can define same controller in different areas to make our application more modular, manageable and robust. In this demonstration, I have used two areas Main (Public website) and blog area. In my earlier article, how to stop cross-site request forgery. I am explaining all steps how to organizing an application using areas in MVC.
mvc area

Why We Need MVC Areas

When we need multiple departments to maintain with different controllers even having with the same name in different areas. It makes our application more manageable, easy and maintainable to make our development faster.

Create a New MVC Project

First of all, create a new fresh project of MVC

create new project mvc area

New Project Crated

New project created for playing MVC feature of Area.

new project created

Create a New Area

Let’s now start to create a new area. Right click on project then move to Add >>> Area then provide a new relevant name of area.
Create mvc area

Creating Blog Area

Here typing relevant new area name like “Blog”.
type blog area name

Blog Area Created

Now you can see new created area “Blog” under the project.
Area Blog Created

Blog Area File Registration

You can see a new file crated of Blog Area Registration (BlogAreaRegistration.cs) under blog area.

public override string AreaName
{
    get
    {
 return "Blog";
    }
}

public override void RegisterArea(AreaRegistrationContext context)
{
    context.MapRoute("Blog_default",
        "Blog/{controller}/{action}/{id}",
 new { action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }
    );
}

Area Registration in Global.asax

Area registration is also done in Global.asax file.
public class MvcApplication : System.Web.HttpApplication
{
    protected void Application_Start()
    {
    AreaRegistration.RegisterAllAreas();

        WebApiConfig.Register(GlobalConfiguration.Configuration);
    FilterConfig.RegisterGlobalFilters(GlobalFilters.Filters);
        RouteConfig.RegisterRoutes(RouteTable.Routes);
    }
} 

Main Area Creation

Next one new main area is crating in this section.
Main blog area created
Area Registration File Created
In the same way, as in blog area a registration file (MainAreaRegistration.cs) is also created.

public class MainAreaRegistration : AreaRegistration
{
 public override string AreaName
        {
        get
        {
            return "Main";
        }
    }

public override void RegisterArea(AreaRegistrationContext context)
    {
        context.MapRoute(
            "Main_default",
            "Main/{controller}/{action}/{id}",
            new { action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }
        );
    }

Create Home Controller for Main Area

Creating home controller under main area.
Home controller for main area

Create Home Controller For Blog

Alike main area, Home controller is also creating under blog area. Area feature let allow us to create same controller name to make our development more lucrative.
Home controller for blog area

Create View for Both Home controllers of Main & Blog

Here is creating view for Blog and main area.

@{
ViewBag.Title = "Index";
}
<h2>Welcome to Blog Area</h2>
<div> @Html.ActionLink("Back to Main", "Index", "Home", new { area = "Main" }, new { }) </div>
 Main Area View
@{ ViewBag.Title = "Index"; }
<h2>Welcome to Main Area</h2>
<div>
    @Html.ActionLink("Go to Blog", "Index", "Home", new { area = "Blog" }, new { })
</div>

Set Default Area/Controller/Action

Here, you can set your default area, controller and method to launch your application (landing page of your application). Before to set, you need to right click on project and click on properties to navigate on Web tab to set application default page (Area/controller/action).

Area Default Page

or Alternatively can set in RouteConfig.cs

Routes.MapRoute(
                name: "Default",
                url: "{controller}/{action}/{id}",
                defaults: new { controller = "Home", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional },
                namespaces: new[] { "slnMvcArea.Areas.Main.Controllers" }
            ).DataTokens.Add("area","Main");

Now Run your MVC area application

Finally run your MVC app to see how works MVC area feature.

welcome to main area

Navigate to Blog Area

Click on “Go to Blog” to navigate blog area.

welcome to blog area
Now you are on blog area, here is also a link to navigate “Back to Main”.

Conclusion

MVC areas helps us to make more manageable our MVC application to further divides into different files. In each area, we can define same controller like Main area contain “Home” Controller then also other areas can contain same area name “Home”, this code will compile perfectly even we have same controller name in different areas. Thus, it will help us to make large volume of applications with multiple departments so that can build awesome MVC apps with area feature. I tried here to demonstrates all necessary steps to organize an application using areas in MVC app.

Video: This video also demonostrates about Organizing an Application using Areas.

Saturday

Text to Speech: Download free Text to Speech Software

Introduction

Free Text to Speech software is empowered with rich functionality to read any text format into speech/voice.

Free Text to Speech Software Version (1.8.0.0)

Most Popular Supporting Windows Environment

Windows 10

  • Windows 10 Home
  • Windows 10 Pro
  • Windows 10 Enterprise
  • Windows 10 Enterprise LTSB
  • Windows 10 Education

Windows 8

  • Windows 8.1
  • Windows 8.1 Pro
  • Windows 8.1 Enterprise
  • Windows 8
  • Windows 8 Pro
  • Windows 8 Enterprise
  • Windows 8 OEM

Windows 7

  • Windows 7 Home Basic
  • Windows 7 Home Premium
  • Windows 7 Professional
  • Windows 7 Enterprise
  • Windows 7 Ultimate
  • Windows Thin PC
  • Windows Vista Home Basic
  • Windows Vista Home Premium
  • Windows Vista Business
  • Windows Vista Enterprise
  • Windows Vista Ultimate

Windows XP

Text to Speech/Voice Supporting Languages

  • English
  • Spanish
  • French and other European languages.

System Requirements

This is light weight programming it will keep running at any PC with least prerequisites with taking after segments Processor, RAM, Hard Drive Space, Graphics card, Sound Card, PC Speakers, Display and so forth.

Feedback

Your input is essential for me with the goal that continue sending your profitable criticism to include new usefulness in this product. In not so distant future, you will see more usefulness in this product.
Download Free Text to Speech

Dependency

Download Free Microsoft .NET Framework 4.5 if not already installed on your computer.

Pros


  • It is very lightweight software.
  • It consumes very little storage of your computer.
  • It is one click software to install on your computer.

Cons


  • It covers only Windows Operating system.

Steps to Install Free Text to Speech Software

Step #1: First of all download Setup from given link here and end of the article. Now unzip folder and start setup  on click Setup_Speech_Text
text to speech setup file

Step #2: Now you can see progress installing your free text to speech software.
text to speech installing progress

Step #3: Once finished installing process. Finally hit Finish button to complete your installation process.
install text to speech finish

Step #4: Now check your Windows desktop icon where your fee text to speech software already installed.
text to speech desktop icons in windows 10

Step #5: From very left, click on first icon, a new window will open where you can write or copy/paste text to read from text to voice. Finally click on Read Now button to start reading your text.
text to speech read now button

Step #6: Next icon will open a new window where you can send your suggestions to make this software more powerful.
text to speech suggestions box

Step #7: Last icon will open this software basic information.
text to speech info software


Download Free Text to Speech Software
Download

Suggested Reading

.Net OOPS: OOPS interview questions

Introduction (OOPS)

OOPS Programming allows us to develop smaller to smaller logical modules, later we can integrate into one form of software. OOPS includes classes under that methods, entities, events, properties, modules etc. By creating objects can access data in OOPS programming. .Net framework supports only OOPS languages such as vb.net, c#, asp.net, C++ etc. In my earlier example, I have covered almost all MVC ASP.Net Interview Questions And Answers.

1) What is class in .Net OOPS Programming?

Access modifiers allows us to access its class members in different types like Public, Private, Protected, Internal, Protected internal, Static.
Class Inheritance allow us to do to access its base class information and behaviour. Colon image permits us to inherit its base class from derive class.
public class Furniture
    {
        //Fields, properties, methods, members, events, constructors, destructors etc.
    }

2) What is Class and Class Inheritance in OOPS Programming?

public class Furniture
    {
        //Fields, properties, methods, members, events, constructors, destructors etc.
    }
 Public class Sandal:Furniture
    {
        //Fields, properties, methods, members, events, constructors, destructors etc.
    }

3) What are objects in OOPS?

Objects are like variable those who enable to encapsulate data and behaviour
Furniture _obj = new Furniture();

4) What are the basic concepts of OOPS ?

Main top four main features of OOPS are as follows:
I) Abstraction:- In .net framework, abstraction enable to use multiple inheritance, with the access of abstraction can hide important data and show only important data to show user.
II) Polymorphism: It capable to use one form into multiple forms.
II) Encapsulation: We can say encapsulation is subset of abstraction. We can restrict user to show data with the use of encapsulation.
IV) Inheritance: While we are using inheritance there are two main parts one is derived class and other one is base class. Inheritance provides to capable our application to reuse our code and reduce code size.
oops main components
OOPS main components

5). Which of the following type of class allows only one object of it to be created?

  • Virtual class
  • Abstract class
  • Singleton class
  • Friend class

6). Which of the following statements is correct?

  • Base class pointer cannot point to derived class.
  • Derived class pointer cannot point to base class.
  • Pointer to derived class cannot be created.
  • Pointer to base class cannot be created.

7). Which of the following is not the member of class?

  • Static function
  • Friend function
  • Const function
  • Virtual function

8). Which of the following concepts means determining at run time what method to invoke?

  • Data hiding
  • Dynamic Typing
  • Dynamic binding
  • Dynamic loading

9). Which of the class’s instances themselves are classes?

  • Subclass
  • Abstarct Class
  • Metaclass
  • Object Class

10). Which of the following concept of oops allows compiler to insert arguments in a function call if it is not specified?

  • Call by value
  • Call by reference
  • Default arguments
  • Call by pointer

11). Which of the following cannot be friend?

  • Function
  • Class
  • Object
  • Operator function

12). Which of the following concepts of OOPS means exposing only necessary information to client?

  • Encapsulation
  • Abstraction
  • Data hiding
  • Data binding

13). Why reference is not same as a pointer?

  • A reference can never be null.
  • A reference once established cannot be changed.
  • Reference doesn't need an explicit dereferencing mechanism.
  • All of the above.

14) Initialise var to null in C# ?

  • var _myVal = (dynamic)null; 
  • var _myVal = (int32)null; 
  • var _myVal = (int)null; 
  • var _myVal = (string)null; 
  • None;

15) What is Mutable string in .Net framework OOPS? 

  • A mutable string state can't be change 
  • A mutable string state can be change 
  • None 

16) What is Immutable string in .Net framework OOPS?

  • A Immutable string state can't be change 
  • A Immutable string state can be change
  • None
Read More: Difference between mutable and immutable string in .Net framework

17) What is boxing ?

  • Object to value 
  • Value to object 
  • Both A and B 
  • None
int a = 123;
object o = a;  //boxing

18) What is unboxing ? 

  • Object to value 
  • Value to object 
  • Both A and B 
  • None
o = 123;
a = (int)o;  // unboxing
Read More: What is Boxing and Unboxing in .Net Framework

19) Which modifier is used to class as a sealed class? 

  • Protected 
  • Private 
  • Sealed 
  • None 

20) A sealed class cannot be used as a base class? 

  • Yes 
  • No 
  • None 

21) Can be use sealed class as an abstract class? 

  • Yes 
  • No 
  • None 

22) Can be use sealed class for inheritance?

  • No 
  • Yes 
  • None 

23) Can be structs considered like sealed class? 

  • No 
  • Yes 
  • None
public sealed class Csharp
{
    // Class members here.
}

24) Can we instantiate Interface class ? 

  • Interface can be instantiated 
  • Interface cannot be instantiated 
  • Both A and B 
  • None 

25) Does Interface class require inheriting ?

  • No 
  • Yes 
  • None 

26) Which keyword is used to class as a sealed class?

  • Protected 
  • Private 
  • Sealed 
  • None 

 27) Does Interface class support inheriting?

  • Yes 
  • No 
  • None 

28) Can Interfaces contain only the declaration of the members?

  • Yes 
  • No 
  • None 

29) Which keyword is required to make Interface class?

  • Keyword
  • Sealed 
  • Interface
  • None

30) Interface class can contains only properties, indexers, methods, delegates and events signature?

  • No 
  • Yes 
  • None 

31) Can we instantiate abstract class?

  • No 
  • Yes 
  • None 

32) Can be an abstract class as a sealed class?

  • No
  • Yes
  • None

33) Can be an abstract class inherited from more than one class?

  • No 
  • Yes 
  • None 

34) An abstract class can contain constructors and destructor?

  • No 
  • Yes 
  • None 

35) Can it an abstract method likely implicitly virtual method?

  • No 
  • Yes 
  • None

Conclusion (OOPS)

OOPS provides great capability with Re-usability, Inheritance, Data Hiding, Reduced complexity of a problem, Easy to Maintain and Upgrade, Modifiable and Message Passing to develop high quality software with cost cutting.

OOPS, IIS and Other ASP.Net Interview Questions and Answers:

MVC Charts: How to create charts using MVC

Introduction

Already explained how to send SMS using C# in my previous article, here explaining about MVC Charts. Chart Helper is an outstanding option to show your data in graphical representation. The Chart Helper shows data in image in different chart types like Funnel, Bar Chart, Pie, Column, Candlestick, Doughnut, StackedBar100, BoxPlot, Pyramid, Polar, Radar, RangeBar etc. Chart Helper can show more than 30 chart types in MVC C#. Here, I are explaining main properties of Charts like Height, Weight, Title, Series and then finally write charts into output bmp file. In this sample, I will show how to create charts using MVC.

Database Script

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[tblMVCCharts](
 [ChartID] [int] IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,
 [Growth_Year] [int] NULL,
 [Growth_Value] [float] NULL
) ON [PRIMARY]


insert into [dbo].[tblMVCCharts] (Growth_Year, Growth_Value) values (2008,50)
insert into [dbo].[tblMVCCharts] (Growth_Year, Growth_Value) values (2009,70)
insert into [dbo].[tblMVCCharts] (Growth_Year, Growth_Value) values (2010,80)
insert into [dbo].[tblMVCCharts] (Growth_Year, Growth_Value) values (2011,90)
insert into [dbo].[tblMVCCharts] (Growth_Year, Growth_Value) values (2012,120)
insert into [dbo].[tblMVCCharts] (Growth_Year, Growth_Value) values (2013,150)
insert into [dbo].[tblMVCCharts] (Growth_Year, Growth_Value) values (2014,100)
insert into [dbo].[tblMVCCharts] (Growth_Year, Growth_Value) values (2015,300)

Namespace

using System.Web.Helpers;

Height-Weight

We can increase-decrease chart height and weight as per your customisation requirements

Title

Here we can put title of the chart.

Series

In series property, Series is very required property to provide data (X & Y series) to generate into graphical form. We need to provide data for X (Horizontal) and Y (Vertical) series to show data in graphical representation, that is what we need to extract from our data into chart in MVC.

Write

Write properties is finally convert our data into image form to output in to BMP file.
Every chart necessarily requires values for x and y for similar collection of information. Here are showing growth overs years values for X and Y.

Controller Action Column Chart

public ActionResult CharterColumn()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Vanilla3D)
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [Column Chart]")
   .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "column", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
          .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View Column Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("CharterColumn")" alt="Chart" />

Column Chart Output

Column Chart

Controller Action Bar Chart

public ActionResult ChartBar()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Vanilla3D)
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [Bar Chart]")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "Bar", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View Bar Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("ChartBar")" alt="Chart" />

Bar Chart Output

Bar Chart

Controller Action Pie Chart

public ActionResult ChartPie()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Vanilla3D)
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [Pie Chart]")
            .AddLegend("Summary")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "Pie", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View Pie Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("ChartPie")" alt="Chart" />

Pie Chart Output

Pie Chart

Controller Action Three Line Break Chart

public ActionResult ChartThreelinebreak()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    /// SeriesChartType.Candlestick
    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Vanilla3D)
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [Three Line Break Chart]")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "Candlestick", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View Three Line Break Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("ChartThreelinebreak")" alt="Chart" />

Three Line Break Chart Output

Three Line Break Chart

Controller Action Bubble Chart

public ActionResult Bubblebreak()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Green)

    /// SeriesChartType.Bubble
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [Bubble Chart]")
            .AddLegend("Summary")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "Bubble", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View Bubble Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("Bubblebreak")" alt="Chart" />

Bubble Chart Output

Bubble Chart

Controller Action Doughnut Chart

public ActionResult DoughnutGraph()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Green)

    /// SeriesChartType.Doughnut
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [Doughnut Chart]")
            .AddLegend("Summary")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "Doughnut", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View Doughnut Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("DoughnutGraph")" alt="Chart" />

Doughnut Chart Output

Doughnut Chart

Controller Action StackedBar100 Chart

public ActionResult ChartStackedBar100()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Green)

    /// SeriesChartType.StackedBar100
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [StackedBar100 Chart]")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "StackedBar100", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View StackedBar100 Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("ChartStackedBar100")" alt="Chart" />

StackedBar100 Chart Output

StackedBar100 Chart

Controller Action BoxPlot Chart


public ActionResult ChartBoxPlot()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Green)

    /// SeriesChartType.BoxPlot
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [BoxPlot Chart]")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "BoxPlot", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View BoxPlot Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("ChartBoxPlot")" alt="Chart" />

BoxPlot Chart Output

BoxPlot Chart

Controller Action Pyramid Chart


public ActionResult ChartPyramid()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Green)

    /// SeriesChartType.Pyramid
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [Pyramid Chart]")
            .AddLegend("Summary")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "Pyramid", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View Polar Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("ChartPyramid")" alt="Chart" />

Pyramid Chart Output

ChartPyramid

Controller Action Polar Chart

public ActionResult ChartPolar()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Green)

    /// SeriesChartType.Polar
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [Polar Chart]")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "Polar", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View Polar Chart

 <img src="@Url.Action("ChartPolar")" alt="Chart" />

Radar Chart Output

Polar Chart

Controller Action Radar Chart

public ActionResult RadarChart()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Green)

    /// SeriesChartType.Radar
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [Radar Chart]")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "Radar", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View Radar Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("RadarChart")" alt="Chart" />

Radar Chart Output

Radar Chart

Controller Action RangeBar Chart

public ActionResult ChartRangeBar()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Green)
            
    /// SeriesChartType.RangeBar
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [RangeBar Chart]")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "RangeBar", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View RangeBar Chart

<img src="@Url.Action("ChartRangeBar")" alt="Chart" />

RangeBar Chart Output

RangeBar Chart

Controller Action Funnel Chart

public ActionResult ChartFunnel()
{
    var _context = new TestEntities();

    ArrayList xValue = new ArrayList();
    ArrayList yValue = new ArrayList();

    var results = (from c in _context.tblMVCCharts select c);

    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => xValue.Add(rs.Growth_Year));
    results.ToList().ForEach(rs => yValue.Add(rs.Growth_Value));

    new Chart(width: 600, height: 400, theme: ChartTheme.Green)

    /// SeriesChartType.Funnel
    .AddTitle("Chart for Growth [Funnel Chart]")
    .AddLegend("Summary")
            .AddSeries("Default", chartType: "Funnel", xValue: xValue, yValues: yValue)
            .Write("bmp");

    return null;
}

Razor View Funnel Chart

<img alt="Chart" chartfunnel="" src="@Url.Action("ChartFunnel") />

Funnel Chart Output

Funnel Chart

Conclusion

Charts help us to represent data into graphical form from tabular data. MVC charts have been provided facility to represent data into different charts. We can analyse data minutely with the help of MVC charts to take up comparative decisions. Hopefully, above all charts will help everyone to represent data in to many ways in your web app. I tried here how to create charts using MVC with detailed example and also attached a working sample with database.

Download Working Sample

Download
Note: Change Connection String in web.config before to run this working sample of MVC Charts.

Video: How to create charts using MVC

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